We’ve found Jeremy Hunt’s book – and yes, he does want to Privatise the NHS.

Note: there is a live link to a pdf of the book at the bottom of this page.

When I try to explain to people that highly controversial NHS reforms, such as the imposition of the new Junior Doctors’ contract, are part of a much wider plan to destabilise and deconstruct the NHS, I am quite often accused of being a conspiracy theorist. Amongst my front-line NHS co-workers, there is a widespread agreement that the government is pushing the health service towards privatisation. But amongst those not directly involved with the NHS, the perceptions are quite different. Many people believe that the NHS is too precious an institution for the Conservatives to destroy without risking political suicide. To justify this position, people will often point to the fact that no-where in any of the Conservative rhetoric or party political literature are there direct references to a desire to privatise the NHS. Well, this is not strictly true. 


‘DIRECT DEMOCRACY’ by Jeremy Hunt et al.


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Back in 2005 when the Conservative Party was undergoing a prolonged period of navel-gazing after having been out of power for 8 years, a group of ambitious MPs co-authored a book called ‘DIRECT DEMOCRACY – An Agenda for a New Model Party’. Contributors include: Douglass Carswell (of recent UKIP defection fame), Michael Gove and most importantly, Jeremy Hunt. There was some muted reference to the contents of the work in the national media prior to the 2010 election but since then it has fallen off the radar and is in fact notoriously difficult to find. It would appear there is a very good reason for the books’ disappearance – and that is, in part, because it quite explicitly lays outs the desire of the authors, including Jeremy Hunt himself, to privatise the NHS.


From a  review of ‘Direct Democracy’  in The Spectator

“One of the founding texts for the new, revitalised Toryism….written by some of the brightest young Conservative thinkers”.


Here is a summary of some of the key statements.


Page 74.

The problem with the NHS is not one of resources. Rather, it is that it is a centrally run, state monopoly designed over half a century ago.

This highly pejorative description of the NHS might explain the paltry and grossly insufficient 0.8% increase in funding that constitutes David Cameron’s promised sustained increase. This is a fifth of the average percentage rise that has been seen year on year since 1948 (it has previously been 4% on average).


Page 75.

A recent independent study of national health care systems placed the UK’s 18th out of 19 countries.

There is no reference to the actual study so no actual analysis of the figures can be made. However, in 2014 The Commonwealth Fund – an Independent US Foundation mandated with analysing Health Policy and Systems from the point of view of providing high quality, efficient care, especially to the most vulnerable in society, assessed 11 Healthcare systems using detailed data from patients and clinicians, supplemented with outcomes data from the WHO. The United Kingdom was ranked first overall, scoring highest on: quality, access, affordability, effectiveness, safety, co-ordinated care and patient-centred care. The US Health Service, upon whose structures many of the surreptitious NHS privatisation reforms are based, scored worst overall in spite of having per-head health expenditure of more than double that of the UK ( £5017 Vs £1876).


Page 77.

Professor Julian Le Grand, Policy Adviser to the Prime Minister and Professor of Social Policy at the London School of Economics has consistently emphasised the inequalities in the current health system. In an academic lecture in 2004 he said, “Unemployed people and individuals with low income and poor educational qualifications use health services less relative to need than the employed, the rich and the better educated.”

This is a simple re-statement of the Inverse Care Law, proposed by Julian Tudor Hart in 1971.  It is a strange statement to quote as criticism of a nationalised health service because vast bodies of international evidence suggest that health inequality in relation to the healthcare system is most adversely affected in countries where there is poorly regulated private care as the predominant provider. In fact, the full expression of the Inverse Care Law reads:

“The availability of good medical care tends to vary inversely with the needs of the population served. This operates more completely where medical care is exposed to market forces, and less so where such exposure is reduced.”

A centrally funded health service has, in fact, been a major contributor to reducing health inequality by allowing healthcare practitioners and policy makers to design services and deliver care based on need, not profitability. The biggest contributor to health inequality is in fact social inequality, a problem that has deteriorated significantly in the wake of the Conservative agenda of combined economic austerity and welfare reform.


Page 78.

Our ambition should be to break down the barriers between private and public provision, in effect DENATIONALISING the provision of health care in Britain, so extending to all the choices currently available only to the minority who opt for private provision.

This is the key statement – the open, unambiguous admission that the aim of the Conservative Party’s health policy should be the dismantling of the NHS. The inference from the complete statement is that allowing the private sector to provide services would drive efficiency to such an extent that the government / employers would be able to pay for everyone to have the higher levels of care. Without rehashing the whole public-private debate, one of the main problems with this assertion is that when private providers are introduced, any costs savings generated through efficiency can easily be offset by the need to turn a profit. Regulation of profit margins and service delivery by insurance providers and private healthcare companies is notoriously difficult. For evidence of this you can read about the very recent difficulties that the Democratic administration in the USA have had in trying to regulate insurers and achieve universal access to care with their Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. A second, huge problem is that many important, complex health interventions are just not profitable. How do you demonstrate profitability in the management of complex, chronic diseases such as Diabetes, Obesity and Heart Disease when they interact with complex social factors that require very long-term involvement from multiple disciplines? When there is difficulty in demonstrating profitability, private enterprises are very unlikely to make investments in developing high quality, innovative services. As a result, there is no equivalent system in countries with predominantly private healthcare that can match the diverse, prolific and highly inclusive primary health system of the UK.

Those of us that oppose the widespread privatisation of NHS services do not do so for ideological reasons. The two-tier system that is proposed in Hunt’s book, where people who can afford high quality care access the private sector and the rest access whatever rudimentary level of care the government decide to provide is exactly the situation that Aneurin Bevan feared would emerge if he chose any system other than a nationalised service. A cynic could argue of course, that using evidence to highlight the benefits of a nationalised system of healthcare is in fact pointless because Conservative opposition to the NHS is ideological,  not pragmatic. That is to stay, that it is a central tenet of the right that health should be treated no differently to chocolate, cars or flat-screen TVs because it is a commodity, that like everything else should only be purchased by those that can afford to pay for it.


page 80.

Instead of Tinkering with a fundamentally broken machine [the Conservative Party] should offer to update the model, setting out in warm optimistic tones, its vision for a healthier Britain.

All of the recent NHS reforms have been presented in warm optimistic tones – very much in the tradition of a siren-song luring the good ship NHS towards destruction. With regards to the vision for a healthier Britain – see the discussion above.


page 80.
Our three guiding principles:                                                        
-That decisions should be taken as closely as possible to the people that they effect.
-That policy makers should be directly accountable.                     
-That citizens should be as free as possible from state coercion.
Mr Hunt’s actions with regards to the Junior Doctor Contract reforms do of course violate all of these. This throws into even sharper relief, the degree of disconnect between his political rhetoric and actual behaviour.    

So there it is, the rumours are true. Jeremy Hunt co-authored a book in which he openly professed a desire to privatise the NHS.

In the next volume Mr Hunt could quite easily outline a Dummie’s guide for Privatising a Public Service……

  1. Slowly run the service into the ground.
  2. Facilitate a media onslaught so that that public believe that the system and the workers within are failing them.
  3. Gradually usher in private enterprise in the name of ‘efficiency and safety’.

Perusing the national press this past week has been like watching such a story unfold in real time. In addition to the government’s farcical behaviour over Junior Doctors’ contracts, the events at Addenbrooke’s Hospital can be seen as a microcosm of the upheavals occurring throughout the NHS. Two hundred of Addenbrooke’s beds are blocked as a result of cuts in council social care and people subsequently being unable to access care at home. The Hospital is spending 1.2million per week above its income to cover the staff shortages arising due to patient overload, a lack of trained nursing staff and an inability to recruit from abroad due to blocks on Visas for non-EU nurses. As a result, citing serious staff shortages as the reason, the Care Quality Commission has downgraded Addenbrooke’s performance assessment to “inadequate” from the “top ranking” assessment that it was given just over a year ago. The decapitated Head of Cambridge University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Keith McNeil, perfectly summarised the impossible position faced by many NHS Chief Executives in the context of this chronic government neglect and under-funding. He observed, that when forced to choose between debt and risking quality, front-line NHS leaders will choose quality every time.

Even from this brief description, it is easy to see how Addenbrooke’s problems stem in large part from the indirect constraints placed upon it by various incrementally damaging government policies. Sadly, their situation is far from unique. Addenbrookes is but one front in a war of attrition being waged against the NHS . It is a war that is 50 years in the making, and it is a war that without our collective resistance, the  Conservative government is going to win.


A heartfelt thanks to publishers Lulu.com for being the only people to still sell Direct Democracy. If you would like to thank them by buying a copy (it’s only £1) – you can do so here. Otherwise, here’s a link to a pdf copy:

direct_democracy___an_agenda_for_a_new_model_party


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How doctors can Strike safely and effectively….

Screen Shot 2015-09-20 at 22.22.01At the time of writing, there is widespread anger and dismay amongst Junior Doctors in the United Kingdom at the imposition by the Conservative Government, of new pay contracts due to take effect in August 2016. Broadly speaking, changes in the classification of working patterns, on-call supplementation and pay progression could see many doctors lose up to 30% of their pay. You can read about the details of the proposed changes by clicking the image, or read the BMA summary analysis of the proposed changes here.

Ostensibly, the UK government are suggesting that these changes are essential to drive NHS efficiency, improve patient safety and to bring doctors pay in line with that of other public sector workers. However, the draconian way in which the changes are being enforced and the lack of evidence to support the governments claims have led many to believe that the changes are actually part of a wider ideological deconstruction of the National Health Service, in order to pave the way for a two-tier system with much greater input from the profit-driven private sector. Accordingly, Junior Doctors in the UK are considering widespread industrial action. In this post, we will look at how the Junior Doctor lobby can go about striking in a way that will minimise patient harm, mobilise public good-will and deliver the maximum political impact to bring the government back to the negotiating table.


THE AIMS OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION MUST BE WELL DEFINED


Evidence from around the world suggests that contrary to popular belief, doctors can strike effectively and can do so without putting short-term patient safety at risk. However, striking alone will not be enough to effect change. It is crucial that junior doctors undertake their industrial action on the background of very clearly stated aims, which will also have been made very clear to the general public and the government. Two such aims could be:  

  1. TO BRING THE GOVERNMENT BACK TO AN OPEN NEGOTIATION    REGARDING THE IMPOSITION OF THE NEW JUNIOR DOCTOR CONTRACT.                                                                                              
  2. THE REMOVAL OF JEREMY HUNT AS HEALTH SECRETARY 

Although the Government have given lip-service to contract negotiations, the BMA Junior Doctor’s Committee are of the opinion that the inflexible preconditions that have been presented to them are unacceptable. Hence, one of the stated aims of industrial action could be the instigation of open and flexible negotiations. In the months leading up to these contract changes, Jeremy Hunt has been at the forefront of a media campaign typified my smear and misinformation, the aim of which has been to vilify doctors in the eyes of the general public. The peddling of such misinformation in the pursuit of ideological aims is completely unacceptable. In response, the doctors lobby should accept nothing less than Mr Hunt’s resignation or removal. There is already a petition for this with more than 100,000 signatures. You can add your signature here.

In terms of the practicalities of removing Mr Hunt, doctors can use a model of action based on the series of events back in 2012 that led to the deposition of Mr Hunt’s predecessor, Andrew Lansley. Lansley’s removal came in the wake of multiple votes of no-confidence from professional organisations such as the BMA and NMC. This cemented the widespread perception within the Health Service and amongst MPs that he had mis-sold the Health and Social Care Act in 2012 and that far from delivering much needed reforms to NHS bureaucracy, it led to further fragmentation of the NHS and acted simply as a backdoor to increasing privatisation. We need to frame Mr Hunt’s behaviour in very much the same way – as that of a man completely disconnected from the realities of front line NHS working whose imposition of changes will overall lead to further service fragmentation and  workforce demoralisation – all to the detriment of patient safety.  


SHIFTING THE NARRATIVE


Jeremy Hunt claims that the Junior Doctor’s contract will benefit patient safety whilst delivering significant savings to the NHS. Be in no doubt – the public are listening to this story. There is already a widespread belief that doctors are overprivileged and overpaid. In an era of austerity, the emotive pleas from junior doctors about how our lives are going to be ruined by pay cuts fall very much on deaf ears. If you need proof of this, then simply peruse the comments section of any newspaper where the contract changes have been reported.

To get the support of the public and our colleagues, we need to frame this situation in a different way and shift the focus away from the numbers in our pay-packets towards three broader themes:


1. That this contract imposition will severely effect patient safety.


2. That the decimation of junior doctor conditions and morale is part of a bigger program of NHS deconstruction.


3. That after Junior Doctors, the government will remove unsociable hours pay for Nurses, Midwives, ODPs, Physiotherapists and Healthcare Assistants – that is to say, all of our colleagues and friends will be next.


One emerging theme from the Patient Safety literature relates to the role of front-line doctors in maintaining the resilience of the NHS. Resilience in this sense denotes the ability of the system to adapt quickly and continue delivering safe care in spite of rapidly increasing complexity related to patient needs, healthcare technology, financial constraints etc. The evidence suggests that in spite of the increasing pressures on the system over the past 20 years, patient safety has remained stable. One of the most crucial contributing factors to the resilience of the system is the leadership role played by frontline Junior Doctors. In this complex environment, doctors’ leadership and efforts based on goodwill (i.e. not financial remuneration) facilitate adaptive outcomes such as system learning, innovation and adaptability.  The changes to the contract will undoubtably result in an acceleration of the exodus of Junior Doctors from frontline services. Those left will be under significantly more pressure from both the increased workload and the psychological effects of being severely undervalued and disenchanted. The resilience of the system will suffer. Many frontline services may have to close. Services will have to be centralised. This is the story that we need to tell the public and our colleagues. Do they want to lose their GP surgery or local hospital? Do they want to be seen / treated / operated on / counselled by an unhappy and undervalued Doctor? How do they think this will affect the doctor – patient dynamic? 

If we allow the government to pull this thread, the whole system may begin to unravel. This is the story we need to tell. Our industrial action needs to be framed in defence of the whole NHS so we don’t come across as a group of over-privileged public sector workers, complaining and marching whilst people’s operations and outpatient appointments are delayed.


THE PRACTICALITIES OF A JUNIOR DOCTOR’S STRIKE 



There are two ways that doctors can strike – partially or completely. The complete strike is a rarity and is almost invariably restricted to low-income countries with poor health infrastructure. A complete doctor’s strike does of course result in deaths, often many hundreds of deaths, but in countries where doctors are revered and relatively few in number, public opinion usually remains firmly in their favour. So in the UK, the maximum intensity of strike action that would be morally and ethically acceptable to both doctors and the public would be a partial strike. In practical terms, this would most likely take the form of Junior Doctors declining to participate in elective clinical work such as outpatient clinics and planned, non-emergency operations.

Even this level of strike action however will make many junior doctors deeply uncomfortable. Although the most comprehensive review of mortality in relation to doctor’s strike action has shown that there is often actually a decrease in short-term mortality during partial strike action (most likely due to the lowering of complications seen during elective operations) many doctors will still feel that any form of industrial action is a violation of their duty of care. There are also the issues surrounding treatment delays which may affect long-term mortality, not to mention the fact that it is the striking doctors ourselves that will have to redouble our efforts to help clear the backlog of work upon our return to practice. Finally, there is also the chance that a strike may actually backfire and further strengthen the government’s position. During the 2006 Junior Doctor’s strike in New Zealand for example, many of the duties of Junior Doctors were taken over by Consultants. What happened was that A&E waiting times actually improved and patient flow through Acute Medicine departments improved. If a similar pattern were to emerge during a UK strike, it would provide ample opportunity for spin and for Mr Hunt and others to further undermine the value of Junior Doctors in the eyes of the public.

The government is undoubtably aware of all this. They know that because doctors are unable to stage a complete strike, we have relatively limited power when it comes to contract negotiations. This is why they were able to present completely unreasonable negotiation preconditions to the BMA’s Junior Doctor’s committee.


A COMPREHENSIVE RESPONSE


So a partial strike alone is unlikely to bring the government back to the negotiating table in a meaningful way. This is an important point, because in social media circles and the press, a Junior Doctor’s strike is being mooted almost as an extreme last resort to force the government’s hand. What is required instead is a much more comprehensive and nuanced response in which we frame the systematic destruction of our working conditions and morale in the context of the wider dismantling of the NHS.

Ironically it is one of the most frequently employed tactics of neo-conservative governments to use external threats (perceived or real) as a way of both increasing societal cohesion and government control over society. As a group of highly motivated  professionals who spend their lives working in teams to keep patients safe,  Junior Doctors should use this threat to our working conditions as a stimulus for cohesive and co-ordinated action directed towards protecting the NHS. 


SOME SUGGESTIONS AS TO WHAT TO ACTUALLY DO….


· TALK – talk to everyone, friends, family, colleagues, your bosses, and strangers. Talk about the NHS. Talk about the importance of resilience in the healthcare system. Talk about how you think stress and demoralisation will affect care in your particular niche. Comment on websites and social media – but don’t rise with anger to the doctor bashers. Presenting them with figures about our pay is often unhelpful and may even help fortify their position.

· LOBBY – write to your Royal College, your MP, tweet the Shadow Health Secretary, the Leader of the Opposition. Go the meetings being organised by the BMA and NHS employers. Lobby the BMA to pass a no confidence vote in Jeremy Hunt. Write to the GMC. Sign the petitions. Speak to your local representatives from the NMC and UNISON – highlight your concerns that the next pay cuts will be to our NHS colleagues.

· STRIKE – Join the strike – it is safe to do so. It is highly unlikely that the strike will involve acute services. But when the time comes and the public see doctors marching, they need to see a group marching to protect them and the NHS. And if you do strike make sure that you are protected. If you are not a member of the BMA, your employer may be able to take action against you for violation of your contract. You can join the BMA here. It is free until 30th September.